Category Archives: Probability

Math Review of Probability without Counting

Overview Usually, probability is calculated in terms of relative numerical frequencies. However, it can also be calculated in terms of ratios of area. Probability of Area Suppose that a target is located on a board. A dart thrown at the board will land somewhere on the board, either outside the target or inside the target. […]

Math Introduction to Probability

Overview: The probability of an event is determined by how likely that event is to happen.  If an event is impossible, it has a probability of 0.  If an event is certain to happen, it has a probability of 1.  Probabilities are usually expressed as fractions, as decimals, or as percentages. What Is an Event? […]

Biology Review of Genetics and Probability

Overview:  Chance and Probability Geneticists use the principles of chance  and probability to express the results of genetic experiments with pea plants, as well as other plants and animals.  In mathematical terms, probability refers to the fraction (or percentage, in decimals) of times an event can occur.  According to the product rule for independent events. […]

Who’s Afraid of the Normal Curve?

Overview:  What Is the Normal Curve? The normal curve is a frequency distribution with special statistical properties.  The best-known application of the normal curve is the distribution of intelligence as measured by tests such as the Stanford-Binet, but there are other examples  that are close to the normal curve in human and animal behavior.  Biologists, […]

Probability Distribution: Random Variables

A random variable is a function which is usually denoted by X defined on the sample space S whose range is the set of real numbers. i.e. X:S–> R is called a random variable. Example: If an unbiased coin is tossed, Then sample space S={H, T} Let X denoted the number of tails obtained. Then X(T)=1 […]

Multiplication Theorem on Probability

The probability of happening an event can easily be found using the definition of probability. But just the definition cannot be used to find the probability of happening of both the given events. A theorem known as “Multiplication theorem” solves these types of problems. The statement and proof of “Multiplication theorem” and its usage in […]

Addition Theorem on Probability

The probability of happening an event can easily be found using the definition of probability. But just the definition cannot be used to find the probability of happening at least one of the given events. A theorem known as “Addition theorem” solves these types of problems. The statement and proof of “Addition theorem” and its […]