English Review of Dashes and Parentheses

Overview Dashes are often used as punctuation to note a change in direction, while parentheses are used to set off material within a sentence.  Both dashes and parentheses can have the effect of introducing new ideas that are not essential, but add explanation. Dashes Dashes are often used when writers wish to signal a change […]

English Review of Quotation Marks and Italics

Overview Quotation marks are used in many different ways in the English language, in direct quotations, and around the titles of articles, poems, and other shorter works.  Italics are used with the titles of longer works and in other specific contexts. Quotation Marks and Direct Quotations Direct quotations are enclosed with double quotation marks.  “It’s […]

Science Review of Plant Propagation

Overview Not all flowering plants reproduce from seeds.  Some plants reproduce by making exact copies of themselves, as plantlets, from stems, or from multiple roots.  Many plants that have desirable traits can be propagated from cuttings or grafting rather than growing them from seed.  Major crops are also domesticated. Vegetative Reproduction by Plantlets Plants that […]

Science Review of Plant Adaptation

Overview Some types of plants grow successfully in unusual regions, including aquatic plants, salt-tolerant plants, and desert plants.  A few types of plants gather nutrients from trapped insects. Aquatic Plants While most plants live on land, some live in water for most of their life cycle.  The roots are often submerged in mud, and parts […]

Math Review of Strategies of Factoring Polynomials

Overview As a general strategy for factoring polynomials, first check to see if there are any common factors.  If there are not, check for the number of terms.  If there are two terms, it may be a difference of squares.  If there are three terms, it may be a perfect square of a binomial, or […]

Math Review of Factoring More Polynomials

Overview Not all polynomial expressions are of the form x2 +ax +b, where the leading coefficient is equal to 1.  Some polynomial expressions have a coefficient that is not equal to 1, and it must be factored also.  However, the FOIL method can still be used, with one extra step to find the first product. […]

English Review of Commas, Colons, and Semicolons

Overview Commas, colons, and semicolons are used within sentences as punctuation to separate clauses from one another.  They are not interchangeable, but may be related. Commas in Series Commas are used to separate words in a series, such as peas, beans, potatoes, and corn.  The series may be in single words or in separate short […]