Category Archives: Biology

Science Review of Marine Sanctuaries

Overview Marine sanctuaries are like national parks, but in the sea or off the coast. These areas protect many species of marine wildlife, and are in many different locations, as far north as the Arctic, as far south as the Caribbean, as far west as Hawai’i and almost to the Philippines. Marine sanctuaries provide a […]

Science Review of the Eight Senses

Overview The five senses of vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell are familiar.  However, people have three more senses that are critical to everyday life –vestibular, or sense of balance; proprioceptive, or sense of where one is in space; and interoceptive, or the body’s sense of what is going on internally.  Although those senses are […]

Science Review of Plant Propagation

Overview Not all flowering plants reproduce from seeds.  Some plants reproduce by making exact copies of themselves, as plantlets, from stems, or from multiple roots.  Many plants that have desirable traits can be propagated from cuttings or grafting rather than growing them from seed.  Major crops are also domesticated. Vegetative Reproduction by Plantlets Plants that […]

Science Review of Plant Adaptation

Overview Some types of plants grow successfully in unusual regions, including aquatic plants, salt-tolerant plants, and desert plants.  A few types of plants gather nutrients from trapped insects. Aquatic Plants While most plants live on land, some live in water for most of their life cycle.  The roots are often submerged in mud, and parts […]

Science Review of Seeds

Overview In many types of seeds, the hard casing of the seed is surrounded by flesh called a fruit.  Many fruits are attractive to animals, providing food, so the seeds are dispersed that way.  Others are dispersed by wind and water.  Some seeds are dormant until the conditions are right for plants to grow, while […]

Biology Review of Combating Global Warming

Overview Global warming refers to the rise in the average temperature of the climate system of the Earth. Some of the energy has resulted in the increase in ocean temperature. Some glaciers and icebergs have already melted, resulting in widespread change in habitat for many Arctic species. Scientists and politicians have proposed ways to combat […]

Biology Review of the Ozone Hole and Global Warming

Overview Human activity has affected the biosphere on Earth as the population has grown to over 7 billion. Some of the most troubling effects include changes to the ozone layer and global warming. The Stratosphere The stratosphere in Earth’s atmosphere is between 10 and 50 km above the surface. It has an inverted temperature, so […]