Category Archives: Science

Science Review of Storms on the Sun

Overview Eruptions of light and other forms of radiation from the sun affect conditions on and near Planet Earth, causing geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts.  Some types of “storms on the sun” include solar flares, coronal mass ejections, high-speed solar wind, and solar energetic particles. Solar Flare Solar flares come from the […]

Science Review of the Juno Mission

Overview The Juno probe entered orbit around the planet Jupiter on July 4, 2016.  Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System, and the Juno probe will study the magnetic fields of the planet, as well as clues to its origin and composition. The Juno Probe The Juno probe launched in August 2011.  Its […]

Science Review of Dark Matter

Overview The type of energy and matter that we can observe in the universe is thought to be only a small fraction of its total contents, less than 5%.  Dark matter and dark energy have been theorized to make up the rest.  Although scientists cannot observe either dark matter or dark energy directly, evidence for […]

Science Review of Plasma

Overview Plasma is often called the fourth state of matter, as it has properties different from all the other states.  Most of the matter contained in stars, interstellar clouds, and other features of the observable universe is in the plasma state. Definition A plasma is a very hot ionized gas that is made up of […]

Science Review of Bubbles

Overview Bubbles are usually formed when a globule of gas is suspended in a liquid.  Some common examples include the bubbles of carbon dioxide found in carbonated drinks, water vapor in boiling water, and soap bubbles. Carbonated Water Bubbles form when very small air pockets are trapped in liquids.  For example, supersaturated carbon dioxide is […]

Science Review of New Horizons and Pluto

Overview Since the New Horizons spacecraft flew by the dwarf planet Pluto on July 15, 2016, downloaded photographs have revealed more puzzling features.  More will still come, as only about half the data gathered during the flyby has reached Earth. Pluto’s Subsurface Ocean Some of the latest data suggest that there may be an ocean […]

Science Review of the Search for Water on Mars

Overview Scientists have recently announced that there is evidence of water on Mars. Salty water appears to flow down steep slopes during the warmer months, and frozen ice caps and underground slabs of ice seem to melt. However, direct exploration of those fragile features carries risk of contamination. Streaks of Salty Water As recently as […]